BoWBThe Biennale of Western Balkans (BoWB) is a new cultural project, taking place for the first time in the city of Ioannina, in the region of Epirus in Northwestern Greece, on 5-20 October 2018. The organisers' vision is to examine intangible cultural heritage and community values in a contemporary context, in connection with art and new technologies. It features the main event “Bubble”, the exhibitions “Weaving Europe, Weaving Balkans”, “Sonic Minds” and “Common Myths”, the symposium “Visual Ecotopias”, the conference “Intangible Meetings” and an “Un-co-nference”.

the term "intangible cultural heritage" stands for the collective cultural expressions of everyday culture, from small to expanded communities. Artifacts of intangible cultural heritage encompass community values through collective creation. They promote cooperative models of creation along the history of cultures (tradition, anonymous creation, copying practices), evolve over time and appear afresh in the present, serving as a beacon of inspiration for the future.

BoWB explores the new artistic and creative directions of intangible cultural heritage, particularly valuing contributions that examine "lesser known bodies of knowledge, collective, anonymous and non-textual works, women theorists, undiscovered collections, and projects that create interconnections of smaller scenes with wider ones". The aim is to support and present contemporary art that can engage aspects of intangible cultural heritage of the Greek and Western Balkan communities, and of the European and international field as well.

Our sister publication, GrèceHebdo, spoke* with BoWB’s director, Dr. Christos Dermentzopoulos, Associate Professor of Anthropology of Art, Film and Cultural Studies at the School of Fine Arts of the University of Ioannina, on the intentions and ideas of the organisers of this initiative.

How did the first Biennale of the Western Balkans originate and what are its objectives?

The idea emerged from the need to take a fresh look at the notions of tradition, technology, contemporary art and the audiences’ perspective under new circumstances. However, the original concept and the core of our action was not the creation of yet another Biennale of contemporary art focusing on visual arts, but instead a thematic Biennale that will encompass and support contemporary art in its association with the new input offered by open technologies and other forms of commons.

Moreover, our main concern is the intangible cultural heritage, which has been the subject of much discussion lately, and which we want to explore it in depth and from a particular angle. After all, works of intangible cultural heritage can inspire new artistic expressions and new conjunctions as a source of creativity for the future.

Finally, our main objective is to create a new model of management for intangible cultural heritage, through a platform and network that will bring tradition’s lesser known works to the forefront, as well as put emphasis on interdisciplinary research in the field of cultural heritage and on the creation of a dialogue zone in the region of the Western Balkans, and beyond.

chrisdermentzopoulosChristos Dermentzopoulos

Tell us more about folk culture and intangible cultural heritage: how are these subjects approached by the BoWB?

The BoWB’s tagline is “Tradition anew!” and concerns the way we nowadays perceive tradition and, more specifically, the elements of the intangible cultural heritage. We want to explore new attitudes towards tradition’s most conventional corpus and to give new perspectives to its use and reuse. Tradition obviously constitutes a field in need of a new approach, one that would be beyond any aesthetic or nationalistic views. We have to look at it as a living element of everyday culture, not as a relic put on display at festivals and fairs.

There are artistic, academic and local forces inspired by tradition, revisiting it with an innovative view and giving it new perspectives. This is the purpose behind the tagline: to discuss, to reflect on these issues and to propose new collaborative, artistic and aesthetic axes of development. The issue of intangible cultural heritage has become an imperative question for international organisations and it is, of course, a hot topic, both due to the establishment of a new field with unclear boundaries, and to the prospect of developing new cultural policies.

We focus, however, on this concept because it offers many opportunities to revisit neglected subjects, to see their new possibilities through interconnecting with communities, developing and reviving patterns that are worth conserving and evolving with new perspectives. The notion of tradition has generally been abused both through modernist attitudes and through nationalistic connotations and, as a result, everyone gives a different definition to this concept and to what we now call “the intangible cultural heritage”. We therefore want to discuss, illuminate and promote the intangible cultural heritage as a new venture with great prospects, and do that in an ambiance of solidarity, cooperation and interrelation.

What is the relationship of Greece, and the city of Ioannina in particular, with the neighboring countries? Is there a sense of a common identity for the Western Balkans?

The sense of a common identity is present throughout the Balkans. The Western Balkans constitute a distinctive geopolitical entity, and it remains to be seen if they also form a special cultural entity. This is one of the topics to be examined as part of the Biennale. Let us not forget, however, that identities are now considered as hybrid, composite, constantly evolving constructions; something that is actually quite evident if we think of the Balkans.

Bubble BoWB“Plastique Fantastique” temporary space for BoWB’s main event, “Bubble

How do you intend to engage the local community in the BoWB? How can events of this sort, in general, involve a wider audience, instead of a small elite of experts?

Epirus is the region with the smallest number of festivals in Greece, and one those most affected by the economic crisis, with particularly low access to cultural goods. These elements highlight the need to develop such institutions. The city of Ioannina, as well as the entire region, has an exceptionally rich tradition of intangible cultural heritage, thanks to its key location within the Western Balkans, to the University of Ioannina which includes a recently established School of Fine Arts, to the 25 thousand students who bring youth to the project, to its rapidly growing tourism industry. It’s important to stress that we have a good cooperation between the Ministry of Culture -which endorsed the project from the start- the university, the Municipality of Ioannina, the Regional Administration and the local authorities, including the Historical Archive of Epirus, the Municipal and Regional Theatre of Ioannina and the Ephorate of Antiquities of Ioannina, which all embraced and supported the first Western Balkans Biennial. Our objective, however, is to engage the community in the project. We are interested in bottom-up initiatives that will inspire new actions and practices for the future, instead of a top-down approach from the so-called high art world.

Our vision is to create a new field of artistic and technological expression that focuses on folk culture in its multiple aspects and its interconnection with new open technologies. Taking also into account the trend towards refueling tradition, this effort can only be sustained thanks to a boost by the community or communities of any kind. Then it is important to establish a network of contacts and agents that are active predominantly in the Western Balkans, and who can contribute to the promotion and implementation of a model of culture-centric development in these areas.

Although the first Biennale focuses on the Western Balkans, the second one may target the international scene, without abandoning its localised perspective. It is of course very important for these multiple networks to bring forth young, talented people, with a deep knowledge of the fields that I describe, and who can contribute to the cultural development of their respective regions.

*Interview by Magdalini Varoucha. Translation by Nefeli Mosaidi

stelios rallis.1Stelios Rallis, Secretary General for Digital Policy at the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Media, gave an interview to Hara Tzanavara, for the “Efimerida ton Sintakton” Greek daily newspaper, speaking about the ministry’s initiatives to enhance the digital skills of students and young scientinsts, but also the general population, in an effort to tackle Greece’s digital divide.

Mr Rallis, there is the perception that new changes in technology will bring about the end of work. What is your opinion?

I think that these views are probably extreme. We do however understand that changes introduced by technology might cause unease to the citizens. We know that 65% of children who are currently in school will be employed in the future in jobs that today do not exist. We also know that in the future the use of artificial intelligence will be widespread; and we have come to terms with that. However, to go from that to predicting the end of work is a huge, unjustified leap of inference.

We are preparing ourselves for these changes. It is a key priority in our digital policy agenda to provide everyone with the qualifications that will allow them to successfully cope with these changes. This is achieved through the acquisition of digital skills which offer great opportunities to those who will first develop and master them.

What does the term “digital skills” entail and why have they become indispensable?

Our future prosperity could be founded on the digital sector. With the appropriate digital policies, it could contribute to Greece’s economic recovery after exiting the memoranda. In order to achieve that, we need to understand that digital skills are just as important as up-to-date digital infrastructures. These are both prerequisites for an equitable digital development.

We in the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Media put our efforts into laying the digital foundations for the country regarding both infrastructure -fast internet connections for everyone- as well as skills training programmes for all. It hardly makes any sense having state-of-the-art infrastructures if citizens are not able to profit from it. It’s like having the best motorway while people don’t know how to drive… We need digital skills because they are fundamental for social and financial development. Training in digital skills combined with modern digital infrastructure is the cornerstone of a successful digital transformation of Greek society and economy.

What is the current digital skills landscape in Europe?

There is a broad consensus in Europe regarding the positive impact of digital skills on stimulating competitiveness, productivity, innovation and employability. However, Europe -including Greece- faces the paradox of high unemployment rates combined with a shortage of employees with competitive digital skills.

That paradox could be tackled through various initiatives. One of these is the European Commission’s proposal for the creation of the first ever Digital Europe programme, which includes the investment of €9.2 billion in order to align the next long-term EU budget 2021-2027 with increasing digital challenges. Of these, €700 million will be invested in the area of digital skills, to ensure that the current and future workforce will have the opportunity to easily acquire advanced digital skills through long-and short-term training courses and on-the-job traineeships, regardless of their Member State of residence.

What are the steps that Greece takes regarding the bridging of digital divide?

In our country the acknowledged difficulty that part of the labour force faces in accessing the new opportunities that digital transformation of economy offers, led the General Secretariat of Digital Policy, in collaboration with the Union of Hellenic Chambers of Commerce, to design a project aiming at providing and/or upgrading the digital skills of the employees of private enterprises. This includes defining educational needs and offering consulting guidance, implementing professional training programmes as well as certifying the knowledge and skills of 15.000 employees who work in private sector enterprises, including those who are self employed or work on a seasonal basis, regardless their working sector. The details regarding this specific project and call for proposals are included in the Operational Programme Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation 2014-2020 (EPAnEK), one of the five sectoral operational programmes of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (the new NSRF) for the period 2014-2020.

We thus contribute to the improvement of Greece’s score in the European Ranking regarding digital skills. You know very well that in recent years Greece is in the lowest ranking due to the lack of cohesive policy on this issue. This has changed for the better. Since 2016, the “National Digital Strategy 2016-2021” has provided us with a road map of the steps necessary for Greece to be incorporated in the global digital map with a positive five-year outlook. Especially with regards to digital skills training and generational digital divide, we are in need of systemic changes. And we move in that direction.

Despite high unemployment rates, there is a shortage of employees with competitive digital skills. Taking that into account, have you planned any interventions in terms of developing digital skills which will manage to connect education with the labour market?

We are planning actions towards two directions. The first one is “Training and Certification provided to university students and young scientists for acquiring skills regarding application development and computer networks and systems management”, which provides students and young scientists with access to training opportunities. The project, with a budget of €13 million, aims to offer training and certification for up to 10.000 university graduands, postgraduate students, doctoral candidates and Hellenic Open University students in the STEM field (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics), enhancing their skills in programming and operating systems (Development, Operations, Devops). By acquiring the above mentioned skills they will become more competitive and will support the development of digital economy based on innovation.

The project was designed and will be implemented by the General Secretariat of Digital Policy in collaboration with Information Society S.A., which will cooperate with about 20.000 Greek public and private training and education institutions. An electronic platform will be developed, where any potential student will be able to locate and choose the subject of their interest, the respective training institutions as well as the corresponding exam providing internationally verified certification. Each institution will receive a financing of €1,000 per trainee, valid only for students with successful exam results.

Are you planning any actions for digital skills training for the general population?

The projects are aimed at all citizens, with a special emphasis on women. The General Secretariat of Digital Policy in collaboration with the Hellenic Open University has designed the project “Creation and supplying of large-scale distance learning training programmes on digital skills and implementation of informative and training actions throughout Greece”. The purpose of this project is to develop and provide large-scale distance learning programmes on digital skills and carry out informative and training actions throughout Greece, and it has a €5 million budget.

It is aimed at a vast and geographically distributed population across the country, capitalising on the Open University’s expertise on distance learning issues. The educational material created will help enhance the digital skills of 250.000 citizens; there is also provision for the creation of a depository for open training resources, as well as for the creation of a collection and evaluation system for national data regarding digital skills.

The actions will not be restricted to distance learning programmes, but also to in situ training laboratories and relevant events across the country, with special emphasis on small urban areas and regions that have recently gained access to broadband networks, since the demand for information is higher there. In these areas we are going to create small PC workshops, which will remain in the Municipality so that the citizens from less privileged areas can also have access to the distance learning programmes.

Translation: Dimitra Panagiotopoulou & Nefeli Mosaidi


lina tonia

Lina Tonia (Photo by Nikos Begalidis)

Lina Tonia, is a young award winning composer born in Greece, in 1985. Her work list includes more than 100 compositions for orchestra, ensembles, operas and music for theatre that performed in Paris, Vienna, London, New York, Boston, Moscow, Weimar, Berlin, Edinburgh, Zagreb, Sofia, Plovdiv, Tirana, Athens and Thessaloniki.

She has been awarded prizes in several national and international composition competitions for her works. Among others, she received the first prize at Jungerson International Composition Competition in Moscow (2007), the Baerenreiter Award at the 12th International Via Nova Composition Competition in Weimar (2010), the title of “New Young Artist of the Year” from the Union of Greek Critics for Music and Theatre in Athens (2010).

She studied composition at the Department of Music in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (2003 – 2008), with Professor Christos Samaras. She completed a PhD in Composition in Edinburgh University with distinction (2008 – 2012) under the supervision of the professor Nigel Osborne and Michael Edwards, where she was studying with a Greek National Scholarship from Union of Greek Composers (2008 – 2009) and IKY Foundation (2009 – 2011). She studied composition with Michael Jarrell at the Vienna University (2012 – 2013). She worked as a postdoctoral researcher in Music Theory & Composition with a fellowship of the Research Committee of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (2013 – 2014). She participated in many international composition workshops in USA, UK, Germany, France. She was also selected to participate at Manifeste Academy for young composers at IRCAM with Toshio Hosokawa, in Paris (2017).

Some of her works are published by Sconfinarte Editions under a pedagogical goal about contemporary music for young performers. Now, her works are publishing by Donemus Publishing House based in Hague.

Lina Tonia is founding member and artistic director of Meet the Art, artistic series of concerts and performances around Modern Art in Thessaloniki (2015 – 2016). She is teaching Composition and Aural Skills in Macedonia University, Department of Music Art and Science, in Thessaloniki from September of 2016. She gives lectures and seminars about composition and contemporary music. She is a jury member at ENKOR International Music Competition from 2014. She is a member of Greek Composer’s Union.


Lina Tonia talked to Greek News Agenda* about her artistic choices as a composer, stressing her quest for a unique way of expression, as uniqueness is the basis of evolution in art. Asked about the difficulties to endeavour in an international setting, she underlines that Greek musical tradition is less associated with contemporary music in comparison with the tradition of German or Austrian composers.

What prompted you to choose the composition of this kind of music?

The need to look for a new world of sounds in which nothing had been formulated in the same way in the past. The composer carries within him the responsibility of a creator, which makes him a "mastermind" of uniqueness. To this very need of a search for uniqueness, we also owe the evolution not only of music but also of art in general.

Many of your works have been awarded and have been performed all over the world, beyond Greek borders. How easy is it for Greek composers to present their work abroad?

I believe that the recognition of an artist or a scientist at a global level is the result of continuous and fully committed hard work in his field. In art and especially music, which involves a variety of aesthetical issues, it is not easy to endeavor in an international setting, even more so for us Greeks whose musical tradition is less associated with contemporary music (I mean the evolution of classical music) in comparison with the tradition of German or Austrian composers.

Do you think success at an early age encourages an artist creatively?

I feel it confirms the correct direction of the artist’s course and creates incentives.

The titles of your projects seem to prepare the listener for what he will hear. Do you consider your music “programme music” and, if not, to what extent can a non-musical factor influence you and how does it penetrate your musical discourse?

I do not consider my work “programme music”. As I have already mentioned, music has the power to introduce us into an unexplored world in which each person gives his own dimensions. This fact, combined with imagination, has often prompted me to use an extraneous element but perhaps also an unrealistic event to translate an unknown sound into my thoughts, such as the image of a sea of lava on the surface of the moon. Other times I am concerned about the relationship that links numbers or geometric shapes with the organization of my musical thinking, but all these are just things that create occasions.

What do you like to incorporate into your projects? Do you think a Greek element exists in your music, and if there is, how easy is it to recognize it through this kind of music?

The Greek element I feel is evident in my music mainly from the drama that characterizes it. I do not think about what I need to incorporate into my works. The musical speech I have developed almost guides me blindly. The Greeks have the fate of experiences from the nature of our country that are difficult to interpret or integrate into the perception of other peoples. The clear sky, the whiteness of the houses alongside blue waters, a carved stone, are all that inspire us consciously or unconsciously, and they guide us to share in every way the Greek light.

* Interview by Sophia Christaki and Ilias Iordanidis. Translation by Nicole Stellos.



Secretariat General for Media and Communication of the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Media and Open University of Cyprus – Advanced Media Institute co-organize the "Media, Polis, Agora: Journalism and Communication in the Digital Era" AmiRetreat Conference 2018 from 27th to 29th of September in Thessaloniki, Greece. This interdisciplinary conference aims to bring together scholars, professionals and practitioners from diverse fields to discuss the dynamic interplay of politics (polis), journalism and communication (media) and the public sphere (agora).

Greek News Agenda* talked with Associate Professor of Journalism and Communication and member of the Conference’s steering and scientific committee, Sofia Iordanidou, about the Conference objectives and issues of journalism in the digital era, media and communication. Sofia Iordanidou is Journalism and Communication Associate Professor at the Open University of Cyprus, Chairwoman of the «Advanced Media Institute, Applied Research in Communication and Journalism Since 2011, the MA Communication and Journalism has been developed and is being offered at the OUC, under her responsibility. She is the publisher of “Dimosiografia” journal and the website manager of has worked many years in the field of Journalism and Communication Strategy. In New York, she worked for the Voice of America and was the White House correspondent for newspapers in Greece, as well as responsible for the Mondale pre- election campaign. Iordanidou has worked as a journalist for both ERT and MEGA channels in Athens. Her extensive experience includes political consultancy and advisory to many companies in corporate communication.

Interview with Sofia Iordanidou

iordanidouHas the Postgraduate program (MA) “Communication and New Journalism” of the Open University of Cyprus achieved its main goals in the field of academic research, as well as to prepare journalists for the current media market that goes through a crisis?

When we first initiated the program, the two skills that we deemed necessary for today’s journalists were resiliency and flexibility. The media field is ever-changing and crisis is affecting the profession in multiple ways. Every year, following the new trends and listening actively to the needs of the civic society, we adjust our curriculum accordingly. We give our students the opportunity not only to develop critical thinking on classical and more modern media and communication theories, but to practice methodologies and tools. Our stuff combines academic and media/ communications professional qualifications, bridging an existing gap in most journalism schools. We produce academic content, researching critical topics such as safety in journalism and, at the same time, we train the future leaders on media and communications.

The main issue is that, although we feel satisfied by the progress of the program, we never stop questioning, changing and disrupting the status quo in academia and in practice. We never rest, we continually build strong collaborations with international universities, research centres and organizations, in order to contribute to the improvement of our program and to stay competitive offering a relevant curriculum.

What was the underlying principles of your initiative to organize annual Retreat Conferences on emerging digital media issues since 2016 in Greece and Cyprus (Athens, Limassol, Thessaloniki)?

Advanced Media Institute and the Postgraduate Program “Communication and New Journalism” are two vibrant stakeholders in the media ecosystem in Greece and Cyprus. We couldn’t imagine ourselves abstaining from the important discourse on the future of journalism and communications. We focus on being a well-established think tank, a changing catalyst for the advancement of media, not only in theory, but in practice as well. In this context, we invite every year (since 2016) international and local “players” to share experiences, exchange knowledge, discuss, agree and disagree on flaming issues of our field. We are happy to leave our footprint, through our conferences and publications, inspire others and also give something back to our students, academic stuff, researchers and other partners to trust us. We aspire to challenge, provoke and stir up interest in how we can make journalism viable and trustworthy again. (149)

AmiRetreat Conference 2018 is tittled “Media, Polis, Agora: Journalism and Communication in the Digital Era” and will be held from 27th to 29th of September in Thessaloniki.  Would you elaborate on the title and the programme of the Conference?

In a joint effort to redefine journalism, the main aim of this interdisciplinary conference is to explore the possibilities of a new modus vivendi between traditional and new media, journalists and academics, institutions and media companies.

The conference aims to bring together scholars, professionals and practitioners from diverse fields — including journalism studies, media and communication studies, political communication, sociology, critical humanities, policy and governance studies, technology studies, and cultural analysis– to discuss the dynamic and continuous pivotal interplay of politics (polis), journalism and communication (media) and the public sphere (agora). The conference will further discuss the challenges that the advancement in digital journalism, ethics and content creation, mediated public discourse, new media and positions, as well as mediated political, public and civic action bring to those three spheres.

Equally important, the conference seeks to build bridges between academia and the world of journalistic, media and political practice through several initiatives. The first one involves journalists or/and media professionals, where in each one of the three two-hour panel, they are expected to focus on whether there can be a trustworthy public speech, highlight the role of the producer and content manager, promote new forms of storytelling and highlight changes in the field as a result of technology advancements. The second initiative aims to bridge the academics with the journalists. In each two hour panel, academics are expected to highlight the links between theory and practice.

Greek Secretariat General for Media and Communication of the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Media strongly supports and participates in the annual Retreat Conferences on Media, Communication and Journalism in the digital era which are being organized by the Open University of Cyprus since 2016.  Do you believe that government services and people have a role in the digital era’s communication and journalism, and if so, could you define it?

Media and communication field’s purge should always be a collaborative effort. It is very important to have members of the Greek Secretariat General for Media and Communication of the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Media, not only as supporters, but as active and engaged participants to our Conferences.

Media owners, journalists, academia and government should sit together and co-create the new operational models for current media. Without interfering with content production, ministries and other authorities have the power to facilitate the wellbeing of media industries. The Greek example experienced governmental interference for many years before the private sector made its appearance. It’s very hard indeed to try to regulate the field without being part of the ecosystem, without understanding the actual needs.

*Interview by Dr Aikaterini Lambrou, Head of the Press and Communication Office of the Embassy of Greece in Cyprus

AEI BANNERThe Ministry for Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Information supports and actively participates in the 1st International Festival of Archaeological, Ethnographic and Historical Documentary and Culture (AEI-CineFest), held in Cyprus from 19th to 23rd September, 2018.

AEI-CineFest 2018 is part of the European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 celebrations, and is organized by the documentary production company TETRAKTYS FILMS, in collaboration with the Municipality of Aglantzia, Nicosia, the Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation (RIK) and the Archeology Research Unit of the University of Cyprus.

The Greek Press and Communication Office of Nicosia, representing the Ministry of Digital Policy, Telecommunications and Information, works closely with the Festival organizers with the aim of supporting entries from Greece and informing about initiatives of the Ministry in the audiovisual industry .

Specifically, Dr Aikaterini Lambrou, Head of the Press and Communication Office of the Embassy of Greece in Cyprus, will present on Saturday, 22 September 2018, the new legal framework supporting the audiovisual industry in Greece and the attraction of film productions through specific incentives (Law 4487/2017), as well as the ongoing process at the National Centre for Audiovisual Media and Communication (EKOME).

poster ENG

At the AEI-CINEFEST 2018 International Festival events, taking place at the "Skali" cultural area, in the Municipality of Aglantzia, Nicosia, 28 documentaries of archaeological, ethnographic and historical subject matter from seven countries (Cyprus, Greece, France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Serbia and Palestine) will be screened.

The entries from Greece are “St Valentine’s secret trip” by Yiannis Xirouhakis, “The Silence of Asia Minor” by Eleni Konstantinidou, and “Five good gliafia …three drachmas” by Dimitris Trangalos: Yiannis Xirouhakis, on the occasion of the return of the remains of St Valentine, brings to life the golden age of cosmopolitan Lesbos of the early 20th century; Eleni Konstantinidou records the ethnic, sociological and cultural changes of Asia Minor over the years; and finally, Dimitris Tragalos recounts beautiful childhood memories at the archaeological site of Elatia, Fthiotida, in the early 60s.

Interview with the Festival's artistic director

artistic directorFilm director Stavros Papageorgiou, the Festival’s artistic director, talked to Greek News Agenda* about his vision as well as the current state of documentary productions in Greece and Cyprus.

What was the initial motive that sparked the organization of an international Archaeological/Ethnographic/Historical film festival in Cyprus?

Holding a film festival of archaeological, ethnographical and historical documentaries has been a personal vision for some decades that has finally come to fruition this year. There were various reasons for doing this: Firstly, several Cypriot documentaries belonging to all three categories could not, for many years, be screened at any of the existing national festivals, on account of their thematic category; Secondly, Cyprus, an EU member-state, remained the only country without such a festival, which I consider very important, as the issues dealt with by these films contribute to the promotion, propagation and dissemination of the history and cultural heritage of Cyprus; Thirdly, my personal interest in producing such documentaries, some of which are ‘Entelechy’ (2010), ‘The Great Goddess of Cyprus (2015’, and Kiniras: Kytion Priest (in production phase)

Tell us more about your vision for the future of AEI-Cinefest, and documentary-film production in Cyprus and Greece, given the fact that people in the Mediterranean and Middle East region have in recent years experienced a multifaceted crisis (political, economic, cultural and moral).

AEI-Cinefest comes into being this year (with very good forecasts) after 2018 was declared European Year of Cultural Heritage and the Republic of Cyprus included our Festival in the official list of events. The initials in the ‘AEI’ acronym stand for Archeology, Ethnography and History, but there is also a special meaning: the word αει in ancient Greek means always/forever. So I think for certain that it was created to have a developmental path over time so as to serve the reason for its creation, as a conduit for the promotion and dissemination of the cultural heritage of Cyprus.

I am pleased to note that documentaries in Cyprus and Greece are gaining ground. However, they still have a long way to go to reach the level of documentaries from other European countries. Cypriot and Greek documentary makers are not in want of creativity and talent compared with others from around the world. Moreover, there is unlimited material from which documentary filmmakers can draw for their works. What is important is to focus on how to approach their subjects, while building synergies with colleagues and others working in the field in the international arena so as to allow their documentaries to travel around.

Do you believe in synergies in the audiovisual and other creative industries between the private sector and states, aiming for a win-win-situation?

Any form of synergy in the audiovisual sector with either public or private sector institutions / organizations is welcome and essential nowadays. Moreover, this is broadly the EU and European philosophy as regards the audiovisual sector: see e.g. CREATIVE EUROPE and EURIMAGES; and at national level, the Greek Film Centre; SEKin (Cyprus Cinema Advisory Committee); the National Centre of Audiovisual Media and Communication - EKOME S.A. etc

And through these synergies, whether they are sponsorships, co-productions etc., the benefit is mutual and undoubtedly contributes to the qualitative development of the audiovisual product and its export to other countries, with all the benefits (economic, cultural, political etc.) entailed.

Interviews with Yannis Xyrouchakis and Dimitris Trangalos

Greek News Agenda also interviewed* Yannis Xyrouchakis and Dimitris Trangalos - whose films Saint Valetine’s Secret Trip and Five good gliafia... three drachmas will participate in the festival - about their films, synergies and the current state of the audiovisual industry in the two countries.


Yannis Xyrouchakis has worked as film editor for ERT SA (Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation), and has taught cinematographyand editing in “Make Your Own Movie” workshops. He has received an award for editing the documentary “The shepherd’s feast” at the 5th International Documentary Festival of Ierapetra (2018). His films include “Memories and testimonies – the long night of dictatorship” (2017); co-direction of two episodes -“Georgios Rallis” (2014) and “Anastasios Peponis” (2013)- of a Historic Documentary series for Vouli TV (Greek Parliament TV station,as well as two documentaries tittled “Ntikos Byzantios: the chronicle of forms” (2012), and “Periklis Byzantios a painter’s life” (2011).

Saint Valentines

What is your opinion of the audiovisual media industry in Greece and Cyprus at present?

The audiovisual industry in Greece faces major difficulties, the main one being funding. The number of producers has declined to a large extent and the consequences of decreases in funding are reflected on the final result. At the same time, several Greek TV series are produced in Cyprus to take advantage of lower taxation and lower production costs.

Tell us more about your documentary film that will be screened at the AEI-Cinefest 2018

In the film we follow the visit of an expert/ researcher from the Catholic community to the renovated Catholic Church in Mytilene. The church was restored following the persistent efforts of the Catholic Archbishop, so that the remains of St Valentine could be returned. The remains had been deposited in the church two centuries ago by Elisabetta Barghigli, a member of the Catholic community of Mytilene.

Do the relics belong to the Martyr Valentine? Yes, the Pope affirms. But then why has this unique event remained secret, buried with the relics of Valentine? And why is it being withdrawn from obscurity and oblivion now?

A historian from Mytilene, an architect who participated in the restoration of the temple together with the researcher, is looking for answers. Who was the saint whose relics are in Frangoklissia? What was Mytilene like in the 19th century and relations between its inhabitants? When were the remains removed and where have they been all these years? Why are they being returned now?

The Archbishop wants to preserve the history of the Catholic Church in Mytilene and to grant it prestige. The local community, politicians, merchants and hotel owners all wish to make good use of the discovery: "The island of Sappho and Elytis is also the island of all lovers." The commercialization of St Valentine continues to divide both church and society.


Saint Valentine's Secret Trip from Γιάννης Ξηρουχάκης on Vimeo.

Do you believe that synergies between the private sector and states in the audiovisual and other creative industries aim at a win-win-situation?

Such synergies add financial resources to the audiovisual industry, supporting and increasing the process of quality production, while states are financially bolstered by the funds invested in productions, which increase employment and boost their image. Support from state institutions is particularly important when it comes to the production of historical - folklore documentaries.


Dimitris Trangalos has studied mathematics, electronics and film directing. Since 1985, he has worked as film editor for the Greek public broadcaster. He has taught for many years Film editing at the Department of Cinema of Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, as well as Film editing, Animation and Photography at several film schools in Athens. He has collaborated with the Greek Film Centre and Educational Television. His filmography includes “Five good gliafia …three drachmas” (doc. 79΄), (2018); “Donkey-island” - The last paradise (doc. 28΄) 2002; “Death or freedom” (documentary 34΄) 1997; “The most important game: (fiction 78΄) 1992 and more.

What is your view of the audiovisual media industry currently in Greece and Cyprus?

As far as Greece is concerned, the television landscape is quite dim. The audio-visual media industry, especially television, which offers "what the public wants", often offers products that do not meet principles of art and aesthetics. The need for easy profit and the high demand for products that would cover 24-hour programs ultimately results in quality downgrading. Unfortunately, the difficult financial situation of recent years does not facilitate the production of quality films and other TV products; it does not reflect the capabilities and talent in Greece.

Tell us more about your documentary film that will be screened at the AEI-Cinefest 2018.

"Five good gliafia ... three drachmas" is a docudrama. Gliafia is an idiom for all ancient coins (Greek, Roman and Byzantine) in the region of Elatia, in Central Greece, and the drachma was the national currency, before its replacement by the EU single currency, the euro.

In those years, the unprotected archaeological site of Elatia was a playground for children. They would fly their kites there, watch the Acropolis rally, and play football and other team games. Often, following heavy rain, we’d go there in search of ancient coins. It was also one of our games, until the day when a strange old man appeared in the village.

The film title refers to a transaction in which five ancient coins were exchanged for three drachmas. Out in country villages, in the early 60’s, three drachmas were a small fortune for a child. This money was enough to buy a few donuts and to watch the merry-go-round-of-death spectacle with motorcycles that would come to our annual village fair. A recent book by a teacher of mine, along with my childhood diary, has brought back memories of beautiful images and instances from those times.


Do you believe that synergies between the private sector and states in the audiovisual and other creative industries aim at a win-win-situation?

Motion picture and TV series are a group art, needing the co-operation of many skilled people to produce a decent quality product for each market. Private companies and individuals are not excluded from collaborations. They should indeed cooperate, always in respect of rules of art. Profit must not overshadow art, and we have many examples where remarkable works of art were also huge commercial successes.

* Interview by Dr Aikaterini Lambrou, Head of the Press and Communication Office of the Embassy of Greece in Cyprus.

Translated by Magda Hatzopolulos, edited by Florentia Kiortsi.

Read also: General Secretariat for Media and Communication boosting Greek Gaming & Animation, Lefteris Kretsos on bringing Greece on the global map of the Game and Film Making Industry, One more reason to film in Greece: A new legal framework of economic incentives, 10 Reasons to film in Greece, “Filming Greece”: our new series of interviews on Greek Cinema

Marangop KanelopThe composer Dimitris Marangopoulos was born in Athens where he began his studies in theory and composition which he completed with F.M. Beyer at the Music College of the BerlinBerlin University of the Arts.

His compositions have been performed in many countries including Canada, Turkey, Hungary, Sweden, Russia, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, the USA and the UK. His symphonic compositions have been performed by such orchestras as the B.B.C. Orchestra, the Moscow Philharmonic, Sofia Philharmonic, Karlovy Vary Symphony Orchestra, Athens State Orchestra, Armonia Atenea etc, with Operas staged by the Greek National Opera and special commissions for the opening ceremony of the new Planetarium in Athens together with a special music theatre piece for the opening ceremony of the 2004 Olympics which has been in repertoire at the Laterna Magica Theatre (National Theatre of Prague) in Prague.

The composer has also composed for film and stage, including productions of the Greek Classics for the Arts Theatre, Athens, under the direction of Karolos Koun, as well as collaborations with directors Spyros Evangelatos, Iakovos Kampanelis, Andreas Voutsinas and Sotiris Chatzakis. His church music has been performed at the Cathedral of Santa Margarita in Venice, Westminster Abbey, Westminster Cathedral, Canterbury Cathedral, Munich and Linz –Austria (European Capital of Culture).

In 1993 he became artistic director of the musical cycle “Bridges” at the Athens Concert Hall/Megaron. He became also artistic director (1996 – 2010) of the International Festival of Music and Performing Arts in Volos (Thessalia). He is Professor of Composition at the Department of Music Studies of the Ionian University who has also given lectures at the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal College, King’s College London and the University of Music in Vienna.

The Press & Communications Office at the Embassy of Greece in London arranged an interview with Marangopoulos, where he spoke about his remarkable career and his views on the cultural landscape in contemporary Greece.

You are a Greek composer with extremely rich and diverse musical work, having composed music for symphonic repertoire, orchestra, chamber music, opera, theatre, cinema, songs and of course for the popular children’s radio programme “Lilipoupolis”. What inspires you and prompts you each time to choose what to compose in a specific music form and genre?

All of the above genres are just an external stimulation for a composer to express his inner world. The composer is like a music transformer whose thoughts and feelings, born through his contact with external world, are transformed into structured sounds -that is how Stravinsky defines music- that make up this wonderful, non-verbal communication and expression that is music.

External occasions such as commissions, specific events and collaborations have driven me to all these different genres while I was often pushing myself towards a specific direction that I felt fitted to my musical DNA.

How much has Manos Hadjidakis, with whom you have worked closely for a long time in the ‘70s, influenced your musical work? Are there any other Greek or foreign composers whom you admire and whose works you wish you had yourself composed?

Hatzidakis has hardly influenced my musical work in and of itself. However, I was lucky to have met him and worked with him during the unique period that he was heading the Third Radio Programme of Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) and as a result I was influenced by his absolute authenticity and unique personality and by his holistic approach to music. He was one of the most important melody composers of Greek music while at the same time he was well-versed and he promoted deeply the whole of European artistic music, from Mozart to Mahler, including jazz, original traditional music and contemporary avant-garde music.

I admire works of composers like Riades, Skalkottas, Christou, the extraordinary symphonic works of Mikis Theodorakis, works of great Ioanian composers such as Rodotheatos, and all this only about artistic symphonic music. Besides, how can I not admire the power of a song of Attik, of Giannidis, of Tsitsanis, of Theodorakis, of Chatzidakis and of Vamvakaris?

Regarding your multifaceted symphonic musical work and your international career as a composer of classical music, do you think you are best known in Greece or abroad? How does the Greek audience differ from the audience in other countries when it comes to attending classical music concerts?

I was lucky to have my works performed both abroad and in Greece. The truth is that when you listen to your work being performed by an orchestra like the one of BBC or of Moscow, when you hear it performed in sacred and historical places like the Westminster Abbey and when it is presented for the first time and is supported by foreign institutions like Laterna Magic of the National Theatre in Prague, that is the point when you understand how much a composer depends on a good performance. The performer, the soloist, the orchestra consist the other half of the work that could either undermine it or elevate it.

You are a composer, a university professor and the main agent in important cultural initiatives (Volos Symphony Orchestra, Volos International Festival, GEFYRES Programme (BRIDGES), Open Platforms, Cinema Music Competition, etc.). How difficult is it to combine the introversion required for the composition of musical works with the extroversion required for academic and cultural activities? Which of these activities is at the top of your priorities?

The above activities originate naturally from my personality. It is not my livelihood needs that primarily contributed to this, without underestimating them. It is the love of teaching, and the fulfillment you get when you see joy and knowledge exaltation on the faces of the university students as well as the feeling of completeness that you experience when you contribute to an important artistic performance especially in places like the Athens Concert Hall, and in different regions of Greece where I headed important international cultural institutions. You get an underlying feeling of deep satisfaction when you see the audience feel and participate emotionally and mentally and change even slightly its view of the world.

All the above have not been obstacles to my work as a composer. I have always been offering composition my whole time and energy, and this helps me eliminate all fatigue either mental or physical.

EOS ensembleAngela Najaryan, Paul Evernden (EOS ensemble)

You have recently collaborated with EOS Trio, a music ensemble composed of three talented musicians, the clarinet player of Greek origin Paul Evernden, the violinist Angela Najaryan and the pianist Jelena Makarova, who premiered in the UK your work "On the Crest of the Sea". Would you please tell us more about this collaboration and about this great ensemble?

I was really impressed by the dynamism and the high performance quality of this ensemble and especially by its attitude towards music. It is open to all contemporary musical expressions but moving with the same ease within the repertoire of older times. I was really glad when I was informed that the creative core of Paul Evernden and Angela Najaryan envision the scheme as a more versatile music ensemble that could be expanded embracing more musicians or operate in some cases as a duo. I believe that they have excellent prospects and they have already had a remarkable impact.

LILIPOUPOLI was one of the most successful children’s programmes on Greek radio in the 1970s. What do you think was the secret of its success? In your opinion, apart from its undeniable quality, how much did the social and cultural conditions of the ‘70s contribute to the success of LILIPOUPOLIS?

Lilipoupoli was the fruit of the unique creative freedom concept that characterised the period of the Third Radio Programme of the Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) under the direction of Manos Hadjidakis. Certainly, the refreshing post-dictatorial wind that blew at that time played an important role. The creative team of Lilipoupoli worked with imagination, spontaneity and without treating children like underdeveloped adults. Of course, we couldn’t predict back then that the radio show’s songs would travel through three generations and would reach our time fresh and alive through recordings, publications and concerts. Despite the reactions we worked uncensored in a state media by following Hadjidakis' wise instructions. "You are in a public station. You will set the limits yourselves with responsibility and a sense of freedom”.

In 2015 LILIPOUPOLIS made a come-back, in the form of a spectacular show at the National Theatre of Greece. Did it have the response you expected from children as well as adults, or was it addressed to an audience over-satiated with shows, technological and artistic experiences and therefore harder to satisfy?

Indeed, the National Theatre proposed to Regina Kapetanaki, who together with Eleni Vlachou had conceived the original idea for ​​Lillipoupolis, to write and direct a new Lilipepolis which I would compose the music for. The decision to transfer a particular radio world to the stage with a challenging, multidimensional performance for which even the songs were newly recorded was a subtle issue, a sensitive initiative. It was a great pleasure to us when we saw tens of thousands of children attend the STAR OF LILIPOUPOLIS show, actively participate and enjoy the new messages of the ever-young Lillipoupolis that sensitised them on Environment and Nature issues.

The cultural project GEFYRES (BRIDGES CYCLE) completed 20 years of life in 2017. What was the purpose of its creation? How has it evolved with concern to its content over the years? To what extend did it achieve its goals?

BRIDGES project, which now goes on for its 21st year, has highlighted the Athens Concert Hall /Megaron’s pluralistic and integrated approach to Music. The so-called "classical" music of course has a major and particular weight, but BRIDGES along with other similar projects such as the Megaron Underground have shown that the the Athens Concert Hall can be both classical and also pioneering and it can approach fearlessly all the quality music genres but also the relationship of Music with other Arts.
BRIDGES CYCLE has managed to contribute in its way to the renewal and expansion of the Megaron's audience and especially to the attraction of young people.

More than 20 years later, how does the audience -especially the young- respond to the multifaceted musical landscape unfolding through the BRIDGES?

One of the most important contributions of BRIDGES project was attractiong a young audience to which a wide range of events, jazz, ethnic, electronic, house, rock, multi-artistic performances and special projects were offered, connecting symphonic music with quality projects very popular and appealing to young people.

What are your expectations and your vision for BRIDGES in the future? What else would you like for this programme to offer? How, in your opinion, have BRIDGES contributed over the years to changing the character of the ATHENS CONCERT HALL (MEGARON) and the public's view of it?

Great tributes with the participation of Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, Dee Dee Bridgewater; musical tributes to the music of Greece from Crete and the Ionian Islands; live music and cinema with the Munich Symphony Orchestra, Athens State and Radio Symphony Orchestras; special tributes to Beatles, Led Zeppelin and Queen; music and Science in special programmes in collaboration with the Planetarium.

These are just a handful of the previous BRIDGES programmes that contributed to shaping the image of the Megaron along with all other initiatives. They have proved that Megaron is not just a luxurious building of exquisite aesthetic, which is often unfairly identified as an elitist venue, but a familiar, hospitable, warm venue, with many hidden and unexploited spaces apart from the renowned excellent auditoriums. Megaron is a place offering quality performances for a public with no age, social or cultural restrictions.

Marangopoulos westDimitris Marangopoulos at the Westminster Abbey

Part of the BRIDGES project is also the "Audiovisual Arts Festival" that is hosted by the ATHENS CONCERT HALL (MEGARON). In addition, the “Open Platforms” and the "Cinema Music Competition" continue to take place in MEGARON, giving step to young artists and enhancing modern creative initiatives. Please tell us a few words about each of these projects.

We launched a project last year in collaboration with the Ionian University in the Audiovisual Arts area bringing the cutting edge of Audio and Video technology to the Athens Concert Hall/Megaron. Three-dimensional projections, projection mapping, installations, lectures, workshops, mixed multi-artistic performances. Last year's success led us to collaborate with the highly successful Athens Digital Arts Festival, which is inspired and coordinated by Elias Hadjichristodoulou. As part of the project, a vast array of modern audiovisual technology -with live satellite links, applications, performances, lectures- was displayed in many Megaron venues, during a four-day event attended by more than 15,000 people.

OPEN PLATFORMS is a successful project including live auditions of classical music, jazz, ethnic and rock bands from all over Greece. The conductor Miltos Logiadis as the Artistic Director of Megaron, pianist Thanasis Apostolopoulos as the Deputy Artistic Director and myself as a composer and head of the BRIDGES CYCLE, we form a committee that has the chance to come into contact with an exceptional and unknown musical potential and integrate several of these groups into the official annual programme.
Finally, the International Animated Film Music Competition that was launched last year has attracted the interest of more than 130 participants from all over the world. It will continue in the future and it will be enhanced with an international music contest for video games.

How much has the financial crisis affected music industry and especially classical music sector in Greece, both with respect to professional musicians and those who want to pursue studies in classical music? Is there a migration wave of Greek musicians looking for a career abroad (musical brain drain)?

The economic crisis has mainly affected, as expected, the funding of institutions that used to be supported mainly by the state and sponsors. At this point it is worth noting that the Athens Concert Hall tries to do its best by hiring its excellent venues for international conferences and, of course, relies on revenue from tickets and sponsorships. Interestingly, though, the crisis has not affected the public. In my opinion the crisis has stimulated a reaction of rediscovering the arts which, thanks also to the reductions of the tickets prices, has increased sales.

With regards to the wave of "immigration" with the purpose of studying, I would say that it has not increased. The musical departments of the Universities at undergraduate and postgraduate level have provided a reliable and cost-effective solution for many students.

In times of economic scarcity, culture is the first to be hit, as it is considered to be a luxury for many people. On the other hand, we observe in Greece a spectacular increase of cultural institutions (Onassis Cultural Centre, Theocharakis Foundation, Stavros Niarchos Foundation). Would you think that the audience's interest in art and music has increased, or does art still remain an affair for the affluent, while the general public still sees art as a luxury?

The existence of so many entities can be viewed positively. Here the law of the market dominates. Competition, mobility, high standards have incited an audience and have created an unexpected public’s closeness to culture.

I wouldn’t say that the general public sees art as a luxury. Our task is to enrich this audience’s life with arts of the highest possible quality by abolishing different kinds of economic, cultural, age and social barriers that have prevented it from acquainting them and enjoying them.

Do you believe that currently classical music in Greece can ensure a financially satisfying profession or is it better to remain just a hobby? Which are the relevant conditions abroad?

At a professional level, even though there are career opportunities in Greece, many young people pursue professional opportunities abroad. But this is not to be considered as negative. In modern globalised society, mobility is a two-way procedure and gives prospects to worthy musicians.

Classical music is always an excellent choice. But a young person needs to know that apart from talent, it requires devotion, study and perseverance to reach the limits of passion, imagination and extroversion.

Through your experience over the years as a professor and artistic manager of the BRIDGES project, how would you assess our country's musical potential and what are your views on music education in Greece?

Our country's musical potential has improved considerably. That is why we have an obligation to open up areas for action and development for them.

What are your next cultural plans in Greece and abroad?

I am currently working on composing an opera for the Alternative Stage of the Greek National Opera and composing a chamber music work and on designing a musical project to be presented in New York.

Read also via Greek News Agenda: Composer Minas Borboudakis on his work in 21st-century classical music; Conductor Markellos Chryssicos on Baroque music and its dialogue with the Greek tradition; Athens Digital Arts Festival 2018: Singularity Now

N.M. (Intro photo ©G. Kanellopoulos)


Dimitris Tsalapatis was born in Athens and studied film making at Lykourgos Stavrakos School and Mathematics at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. He is currently studying for his Master’s in Filmmaking at Goldsmiths University of London. “Torpor” (2018), his first film, will premiere at the 41st National Short Film Festival in Drama, while it will also be screened at 24th Athens Opening Nights and the Linz International Short Film Festival.

“Torpor” describes the emotional state of Alexandros, a young man who sleepwalks at night. In a way, he also sleepwalks during the day, as he suffocates in his working class, xenophobic environment that pushes him to grow up and “become a man”. Alexandros is caught in inertia, passive and unwilling to react, but he will soon have to choose sides. Tsalapatis talks to Greek News Agenda* about “Torpor”, stressing that he is interested in exploring the archetypal conflict between father and son and the forms of rebellion in which this conflict can evolve. He adds that “Torpor” also talks about a social coming-of-age, focusing on the pressure that men feel to enact models of masculinity.


Konstantinos Georgopoulos, "Torpor" (2018)

What prompted you to make this film?

"Torpor"is my graduation film project and my first attempt to tell a story through film. As such, I wanted to begin with an issue I considered intimate, not so much from the point of view of experience, but in dealing with various aspects of its subject matter: the archetypal relationship - a son's conflict with his father and his rebellion as an inevitable development with the various directions it could take.


Simos Kakalas, "Torpor" (2018)

What challenges are there in the process of adulthood and what role do the social and economic framework play?

The film in a way deals with a kind of "social maturity," in the sense that a subject is called upon to conform to imposed social standards, in our case to models of masculinity, male-protectors of either family, home, neighborhood or the “weaker sex”. It is a process that is also experienced by the two central characters of the film, each one of course in his own way.


Konstantinos Georgopoulos, "Torpor" (2018)

Your main character in the movie sleepwalks between neglect and mistreatment. What does he stand for?

He is a character who experiences a situation, perceives it but does not act - or at least does not act consciously. He passively accepts on a daily basis various forms of violence without responding and just withdraws occasionally to the safety of his teen-room (and his laptop), or to his close friendly environment. The body of our central character, through sleepwalking, becomes autonomous and makes choices for him, warns and stands witness to situations that our hero ignores or prefers to ignore. At the same time, sleepwalking, as a sleep disorder rare for the hero's age, is an unconscious attempt to return to childhood and innocence.


Konstantinos Georgopoulos, Vassia Christou, "Torpor" (2018)

What was the process of financing the film and what difficulties could it generate for a young filmmaker?

Generally speaking, sources of public funding in Greece are extremely limited. I was lucky as the original script on which the film was based was selected by ERT's (Greek Public Broadcaster) Microfilm 2017, a program helping new filmmakers make their first films, secure funding, contributing also on either advisory or artistic levels .

* Interview by Florentia Kiortsi, translation by Magda Hatzopoulos

papw789074177Dimitris Papanikolaou is Associate Professor in Modern Greek and Fellow of St. Cross College, Oxford University, UK. Papanikolaou’s research focuses on the ways Modern Greek literature opens a dialogue with other cultural forms (especially Greek popular culture) as well as other literatures and cultures; the other important strand of his research focuses on queer theory and Greek queer cultures.

Professor Papanikolaou’s book on C.P. Cavafy's homosexuality and the poetics of sexuality (“Made just like me”: The homosexual Cavafy and the poetics of sexuality", Published in Greek: "Σαν κι εμένα καμωμένοι. Ο ομοφυλόφιλος Καβάφης και η ποιητική της σεξουαλικότητας”, 2014) has been widely discussed in Greece by literaly critics and Cavafy scholars, while his latest monograph ("There is something about the family: Nation, desire and kinship at a time of crisis", Published in Greek: “Κάτι τρέχει με την οικογένεια:  Έθνος, πόθος και συγγένεια την εποχή της κρίσης”, 2018) is largely an extended comment on the increased production of cultural texts on the dysfunctionality of the Greek family.

Papanikolaou has also been a regular contributor of political commentaries in Greek in Unfollow leftwing monthly review, as well as in Enthemata weekly. His next big projects include: a book titled Greek Weird Wave: A Cinema of Biopolitics; and a longer project provisionally titled ‘Queering Hellas: Movement, sexuality and the place of Greece between the wars’, which looks into expressions of queer desire by writers who moved in and/or out of Greece in the 1920s and 1930s.

Dimitris Papanikolaou spoke to Rethinking Greece* about his work on C.P. Cavafy from the perspective of queer theory; how Greek art under austerity is becoming political in unpredictable ways; Greek exceptionalism and his idea of a minimal or a ‘strategic exceptionalism’ as a useful weapon; the narrative power of the “Holy Greek Family”, as well as the concept of the family as biopolitics and the term “archive trouble” he develops in his latest book. Papanikolaou also addresses the huge impact that the new LGBTQI and anti-racist legislation has had and how the LGBTQI movement in Greece now has the power to be even more intersectional and more inclusive. He finally advocates for the support of departments of Greek language and Literature as hubs that can further foster what is already happening: a real resurgence of wider Modern Greek Studies and “a radical reappraisal of what it means to be Greek in a globalized, glocalized, overmediated, contingent, inconsistent, precarious and simmering world”:

Your work engages with ‘Cavafy and the discourses of sexuality’. Can you tell us a few words about the importance of sexuality in Cavafy’s work and its contemporary relevance?

Many years ago I decided to address what I had felt as a lacuna in Modern Greek Studies, indeed, its most obvious lacuna: to tackle the word of C.P. Cavafy, a well-known poet of the early 20th century who wrote about homoeroticism and homosexuality in ways that were groundbreaking for his times, from the perspective of queer theory and the history of sexuality. In the years that it took for this project to take concrete shape, I realized that it had two separate, important, facets.

Cavafy Archive18One was the new perspectives it could give to the actual poems, as well as the comparative dimensions it was opening them up to. Our slowness in addressing the queer dimension in the work of one of the major figures of Modern Greek letters, had also meant an unease in bringing him closer to authors such as Proust, Whitman, Colette, Gide, Rachilde, but also John Addington Symonds, Edward Carpenter, the Uranians and so on. It had also meant a certain unease in synchronising our readings of Cavafy with debates and developments about writing and sexuality, queer modernity and the autobiographical expression of non-normative sexuality. Yet they were all there: the importance of Cavafy’s work for modern queer cultures; its links to other archi-texts of that tradition; its potential dialogue with more subcultural texts and contexts (such as the Roman d’un inverti, the turn-of-century sexological writing, or the photography of Von Gloeden); last, but not least, its spectacular ability to anticipate newer debates about closeting, sexual citizenship, queer time, cultural dissidence and its impact on sexual identity and desire.

The second element related to a potential queer reading of Cavafy, had to do with the specific politics, within Greek academia and institutional criticism, that had precluded such a reading, or had tried to preempt it as narrow and unworthy. My work alongside that of other scholars stood against this tradition and tried to critically unmask it as a suppressive genealogy, fully recognizing that this was not only a critical, but also a political project. Apart from the enthusiastic reviews (of which there were plenty), I received, of course, also virulent, vituperative comments and attacks, unfortunately not all of them impervious to the homophobia that they were always fast in announcing that they had denounced.

The Greek arts scene flourishes in midst of economic crisis” has been a common understanding/scheme/cliché but how did the economic crisis really affect art and artists in Greece?

Art needs money and institutions – and Greece has, recently, been running low on both. On the other hand, art needs challenges and an environment where its interventions would matter: of that, Greece had plenty.

This is how Athens became, for many “the new Berlin” (a term that I personally dislike, for various reasons), this is how some of the most challenging new European art (especially in performance, in cinema and in graffiti) started coming out of Greece, this is how some of the best debates on culture and politics took place in Greek fora, often with the participation of internationally renowned intellectuals who came to Greece not only to speak, but also to hear and listen.

Tourkovounia Collage

Not that all this surge in interest came without its problems. The Documenta 14 exhibition, for instance, curated by Adam Szymczyk with an impressive series of public programmes curated by Paul Preciado, became a contentious arena, critiqued by many in Greece as ‘orientalist crisis chic’, and defended by others (including myself) as a very productive opening of the Greek scene (including the less heard arguments of the Greek political debate) to the world.

In poetry, the successful English collections on “Poetry and the Crisis” (for instance, the one edited by Karen Van Dyck for Penguin, and by Thodoris Chiotis for Penned in the Margins), found an uneasy reception in Greece, with authors arguing that they are misrepresenting the actual currents of Greek poetry.

And Greek cinematographers, living through one of most internationally accommodating periods for Greek film, never felt at ease with the label ‘Greek Weird Wave’ that was imposed on to their work, neither were they happy with the immediate link that critics seemed to establish between the ‘Weird Wave’ and the sociopolitical context of the Crisis.

All this points to anxiety about being pigeonholed and marginalized, an anxiety often expressed by artists and cultural agents in the periphery. It also points, however, to an unquestionable reality: Greek art is now becoming political in ways that sometimes supersede specific movements or intentions; it participates in an intensive politics of everyday life under austerity and heightened biopolitical governance, even when/where this is not its absolute choice.


Exceptionalism seems to have been the dominant narrative not only for Modern Greek Studies but also for Greek political science, history and more recently, political economy. Should we question its academic/political agenda and rethink Greece beyond its discourse?

More than a decade ago (I think it must have been 2006 or so) two colleagues from Princeton (Constanze Guthenke and Effie Rentzou) and I, all in the early stages of our careers, started a project under the self-evident title ‘Questioning Greek Exceptionalism’. For us the target was obvious: we had been trained by humanist and national(ist) education in thinking that Greece (ancient and modern) was somehow exceptional; yet when we searched for the tools to undermine that type of cultural exceptionalism, we were also faced with theories and analyses that, again, treated Greece as an exceptional case (even in its “belatedness” or “anti-modenity” and ethnonational fixation). We should have known better; it is one thing to critique traditionalists for exceptionalism, and quite another to wag one’s finger at everyone (including oneself). The project, even though discussed at the time, failed to gain traction.

I was reminded of that experience when more recently Greece was, on the one hand singled out in a global financial crisis as the eye of the storm (and Greek society was singled out as the sole reason for its own financial woes), and on the other, Greek political science and sociology joined the discussion arguing that there is something exceptionally different in the case of Greece (a strategy shared by commentators on both sides of the political spectrum).

Of course we need to rethink Greece beyond these wildly exceptionalist frames; we ought to see recent events as well as social developments in a wider context and drawing the widest possible parallels.

Having said that, and based on my experience as a cultural critic, I have also reached the conclusion that there is a level of analysis, let’s call it minimal or strategic exceptionalism (echoing Gayatri Spivak’s concept ‘strategic essentialism’), that can be useful and, indeed, a necessary weapon in putting forth one’s argument in the global arena. Exceptionalism, even though always problematic when it becomes dominant ideology, could perhaps, in its minor and strategic versions, also turn into a tool for cultural resistance and speaking out, a creative force for marginalized voices and disavowed cultural archives. There is some sense, in other words, in showing the exceptional impact the recent crisis has had on Greek society and culture, while also looking for parallels and points of comparison, and critiquing any effort to create out of that exceptional situation a dominant and stagnant ideology.

Speaking of Greek exceptionalism, is there something exceptional about the Greek family? In your latest work, the monograph 'There is Something about the (Greek) Family', you talk about the increased production of cultural texts on the dysfunctionality of the Greek family, especially since the eruption of the crisis. Why do you believe Greek artists have turned to the family, and have done so in such a way?

Early in my new book, I felt the need to address this issue, the ‘exceptionality of the Greek family’, or its opposite, the possibility that, in the final analysis, the Greek family might not be exceptional at all. I was confronted with two discourses, both solid and culturally significant. On the one hand, a long tradition that insists that the Greek family (in the mainland, in the diaspora, in the real conditions of people’s lives as well as in their fantasies about them) is indeed exceptional; too patriarchal but also with a very strong role for the Greek mother (who often is the one fighting to safeguard the rigid traditions of the family, including its masculinist bias); too firmly based on extended kinship networks of help and support, but also extremely oppressive; an institution of excellence and national pride, but also the hotbed of nationalism and national intransigence. At the same time, on the other hand, there were those who claimed that all these characteristics are to be found also in other family traditions too, and most of them, perhaps, all over the world.

elliniki oikogeneia papaox5

I address those two opposing narratives in my work, and see both their insights and their limits. There are, obviously, specificities in the Greek family (including historical specificities for the role played by extended kinship networks in Greek cultural, public and political spheres, as well as internal differences in what we sometimes too easily conceptualize as ‘the Greek family’). And there are also similarities with the kinship structures elsewhere in the world, starting from the Balkans and the eastern Mediterranean basin.

However, an axiom I have followed in my work is that, even when we realize that some of the characteristics of the Greek family are, in the final analysis, not so exceptional at all, it is still analytically productive to track them and discuss how much cultural work they have been doing as exceptional. What I mean by this is that even the widely held narrative about the exceptionality of the Greek family (what in Greece in popular discourse is often referred to as ‘the Holy Greek family’ – η Αγία Ελληνική Οικογένεια) can be powerful and productive as a narrative, in that it frames institutional analysis and policies, deeply held beliefs and ideologies, political positions and practices.

It is also for this reason that I have found recent Greek cinema so fascinating. In many of the films of the Greek Weird Wave, you see the effort of directors to speak about the wider issue of family oppression and violence, sometimes in an obviously allegorical tone that is trying not to be limited by any Greek specificity. Yet, the reception of these films, still, in Greece and abroad, happened in the context of the ‘exceptional Greek family’. The families in Yorgos Lanthimos’s Dogtooth and Alps, or in Athina Tsangari’s Attenberg and Alexandros Avranas’s Miss Violence, are not specifically Greek (and they try not to be specifically Greek, the setting of these films deliberately not recalling recognizable Greek settings). Yet these directors were called upon time and again, by Greek and international commentators, to discuss their films as a commentary on the Greek family specifically; and, what is important, more often than not, they all decided to play ball.

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The Greek paterfamilias appears often in these cultural texts as an oppressive, almost tyrannical figure. What about the infamous figure of passive-aggressive, almighty, loving but overbearing and emasculating Greek mother? This dominant “Greek mother” is a very popular figure in popular discourse, however she is largely absent from these cultural texts, or shown as powerless, silent and almost always overpowered by the father. Could you comment this disparity between popular discourse and cultural texts?

Contrary to expectation, these recent cultural texts are more invested in thinking about power dynamics, control and biopolitics, than about a sociological exploration of the specific gender and affective structures of Greek kinship. In other words, they are not performing a sociology, but a political economy of the Greek family. They are also, as cultural texts, active in the Greek public sphere, inciting discourse, producing new modes of engagement and critique. This might explain the point you raise, the absence of ‘the domineering Greek mother’ in some films, novels and theatre in Greece of the last decade. There have been important exceptions, of course (eg. films such as The Matchbox by Yannis Economides), however what you point out might be right, it is mainly the tyrannical father that takes centre stage in many a Greek cultural text of the last decade.

What for me is the most intriguing about these cultural texts is that they turned towards complex modes of allegory when everyone was expecting them to offer realistic portrayals. For this reason, their obsession with tyrannical (or undermined) father figures seems understandable: they want to show that the centre (of a symbolic, a national, a cultural, an affective system) does not hold any more.

It is interesting, within this context, to review what happens in the film Miss Violence: when the father’s abusive tactics get out of hand, it is the mother who plots to kill him; in the last scene, however, we see her fully assuming his position after he’s gone, as she once again orders the members of the family to lock the door of their apartment and stay inside, now under her power. Mothers can be patriarchal too (and this does not mean that they cannot also be resistant to patriarchy).

In your book, you talk about the family as a biopolitics and also introduce the term “archive trouble” in the context of studying family histories. Can you expand on these concepts?

Indeed, biopolitics and archive trouble are the analytical foundations of the argument in my book. The first is the well known concept popularized in the last decades thanks to the work of Michel Foucault and the criticism that came on its heels. Biopolitics (the politics of/over life) is a concept that helps us better understand how the contemporary world is governed, how the lives of individuals and of populations are organized, projecting liveability to specific groups of people and condemning others to a slow death, reorganizing the protocols of what it means to be human, which humans can have what type of protection and access to supposedly common human achievements (such as medicine and health care, education, freedom of movement, clean water and sanitation, ‘human rights’) and who will be deprived of them or given a different, ‘lighter’ version. Crucially, biopolitics also organizes not only forms of governance and the development institutions, it also frames self-governance, it impacts on the ways we internalize doctrines, ‘economic plans’, ideologies, body images, psychosocial demands, limitations, prohibitions and incitements. It is not an exaggeration, therefore, if we claim, as so many of us do in our work, that we live in a culture of biopolitics; that we speak from within an intense biopolitical present.

Book Covers from left to right: Made just like me: The homosexual Cavafy and the poetics of sexuality (Dimitris Papanikolaou), Archive Fever (Jacques Derrida), Gender Trouble (Judith Bulter), There is Something about the Greek Family (Dimitris Papanikolaou).

I coined the term Archive Trouble, as a result, in order to describe a larger apparatus, a certain mode of understanding, of reacting, of making culture within, and making do with, this biopolitical present. It is an obvious pun bringing together the recent interest in archives and archivality (part of which stemming from Jacques Derrida’s Archive Fever), and the post-Judith Butler thinking of the performative constitution of gender and sexuality encapsulated in seminal works like Gender Trouble. Archive Trouble is a constant questioning about our forms of participating in the political present, through a parallel inquiry about the past and its cultural and ideological impact. Archive Trouble is the effort to reconstitute the archival at a moment of crisis, an effort that, more often than not, becomes evident through the emergence of embodied acts, of bodies that show anxiety, show affective attachment and emotional release, show the explosive potential of a present experienced in the need for embodied counter-memory and radical understanding.

Archive Trouble is a modality that we witness, expansive and engaging, in Greece today. I have documented it in art, in disparate and diverse examples, which, however, show some common features: their pervasive feeling of urgency; an iconoclastic return to the past; a dense biopolitical thinking; a central role for the body in/as performance; an attempt to create, out of all this, a new political and widely participatory art in the present. Archive Trouble performs genealogical exercises and issues constant demands for a history of the present, one that foregrounds our intersecting demands and identities, our intersectionality, as present continuous; our need for historicization as present archival; our expansive citizenship claims as present processual; and our multilayered precarity as present biopolitical.

In the four years since SYRIZA has been in power, we have seen progressive legislation being passed on sex and gender issues, such as the right of same-sex couples to form a civil partnership and to foster children and transgender people’s right  to change their legal gender freely. Will these changes function to remove some of the deadlocks of the Greek family? What do they mean for the LGBTQI / human rights agenda and the expression of ‘other’ sexualities in times of crisis?

In many ways the passing of progressive legislation on human rights, including LGBTQI rights, and the fight against racism and entrenched forms of misogyny and homophobia, became for SYRIZA the platform to prove itself as a left-wing government. Let us not forget that at the same time other decisions the same government implemented, mainly related to austerity measures and the undermining of workers’ rights and union power, have been clearly anti-Left. That said, one should not underestimate the huge impact the new LGBTQI and anti-racist legislation has had, not only on people’s dealings with officials and the state, but also in everyday life, on public opinion, in the public sphere. Greeks are now more cognizant of homophobia, more intolerant of the various forms of racism, more alert to supporting victims of bullying. Internalized and institutionalized (esp. by the Greek church) homophobia and chauvinism still exist, of course; and forms of extreme nationalism are, once again, on the rise.

belia126Yet, as someone who has often offered opinion and has discussed LGBTQI legislation in Greece in various capacities, I have to admit that I had not expected so much to happen in so little time (especially on issues like homoparentality and gender identity declaration). This puts the LGBTQI movement in Greece now in a very advantageous position: it now has the power to be even more radical and more intersectional, more inclusive, more demanding. The rights of migrants (including queer migrants), the rights in the workplace (which include gender rights in the workplace), the rights to assembly as well as the rights to free education and healthcare (which affect everyone, and LGBTQI people know that intimately), the fight against all forms of racism, are all today resurfacing as the new (who would have thought!) fronts to fight, and I can’t see why they shouldn’t frame the central demands of the LGBTQI movement too. And of course, let us not forget the obvious: the LGBTQI movement is also a crucial agent in the fight against the recurrence of racism, ultra-nationalism and fascism which we see today in Greece, after 10 years of intense crisis.

What is the future of Modern Greek Studies outside Greece? In what terms to you think scholars and students (re)approach the Greek path to modernity after the crisis, in the UK and internationally?

Since I was a graduate student, the major complaint in our field was the ‘imminent death of Modern Greek Studies’. All of us, scholars of CompLit and ModGreek Studies, have at some point in our careers written articles with titles such as ‘the need to reinvent Modern Greek Studies’, ‘the crisis of Modern Greek Studies’, ‘save Modern Greek Studies’, ‘Modern Greek Studies at a crossroads’ and so on. And it is true that some of the old and traditionally acclaimed departments of Modern Greek Studies outside Greece have closed down in recent years, or have had a difficult time remaining open.

However, at the very same time, our professional organizations grow; academics writing and teaching on Greek subjects take illustrious chairs all over the world; new academic journals (such as the Journal of Greek Media and Culture) become the platform for publishing new interdisciplinary work and the older and established journals in the field are read more than ever; and never before was there such an interest in Modern Greece by publishers, academic fora and interdisciplinary research bodies. To keep complaining about the ‘decline of Modern Greek’ would just mean that we focus on a part and keep failing to see the whole picture.

Let it be clear: What is under threat today is the existence of specialized departments of Greek language and Literature, and these are precisely the departments and centres that need institutional and financial help. The reason is simple: it is precisely because Modern Greek Studies as a whole is in such a dynamic state at the moment, that it is also in the best interest of everyone to support these few more specialized departments of Greek language, literature and history, since they act as the necessary hubs for the field at large. They can nurture new talent, become the centres of publishing and academic debate on Greece, and create important ports of contact for academics working in Greece. If we focus on supporting these few centres for Greek language and literature around the world, then we can be free to celebrate what is also happening recently: the real resurgence of the wider Modern Greek Studies, a genuine reinvigoration of analytical debate on Greece and its diverse paths to modernities, as well as, for the first time, a radical reappraisal of what it means to be Greek in a globalized, glocalized, overmediated, contingent, inconsistent, precarious and simmering world.

*Interview by Julia Livaditi and Nikolas Nenedakis

Watch Dimitris Papanikolaou lecture on "New Queer Greece?" (Enjoy (y)our State of Emergency: art and activist strategies in times of crisis, 2014):

Read also via Greek News Agenda: New Queer Greece: Performance, Politics, IdentityRethinking Greece: Stella Belia on Civil Partnership Rights, LGBT claims and human rights agenda in times of crisisMaria Yannakaki, Secretary General for Human Rights on the legal recognition of gender identity

Vicky Pryce is a Greek-born economist. She is currently Chief Economic Adviser and a board member at the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR). She was previously Senior Managing Director at FTI Consulting, Director General for Economics at the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and Joint Head of the UK Government Economic Service. Before that she was Partner at the accounting and consulting firm KPMG after senior economic positions in banking and the oil sector.

Vicky Pryce holds a number of academic posts and is a Fellow of the UK Academy for Social Sciences and of the Society of Professional Economists. She sits on the Council of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, on the Advisory Board of the central banking think-tank OMFIF and on the Economic Advisory Group of the British Chambers of Commerce. Her books include: Greekonomics: The Euro crisis and Why Politicians Don't Get It; It's the Economy, Stupid- Economics for Voters, with Ross and Urwin; Redesigning Manufacturing, with Nielsen and Beverland; and Why Women Need Quotas, with Stefan Stern. She is also co-founder of GoodCorporation, a company set up to promote Corporate Social Responsibility.

Economist PryceOn 20 August Greece exited its final three-year bailout programme. The Press & Communications Office at the Embassy of Greece in London arranged an interview with Vicky Pryce, where she spoke about the challenges that Greece and Europe face in the post-bailout era, the potential impact of Brexit and the opportunities presented to Greece after the deal with FYROM on the name issue.

On 20 August Greece exited its final three-year bailout programme. Greek economy is returning to growth and Greek unemployment has dropped below 20% for the first time in the last seven years. In your opinion what are the prospects for Greece’s economy and the challenges that the country faces in the post-bailout era? How can Greece secure a sustainable recovery?

The exit from the bail-out has to be celebrated and was long overdue. Greece has achieved a remarkable turnaround in its public finances achieving a budget surplus on its normal revenue and spending transactions and also a primary surplus when debt servicing is excluded. All other countries that had bailouts such as Ireland, Portugal, Ireland and Cyprus had exited some time ago. The situation in Greece had been more extreme. However while other countries' debt burden remains significant their return to 'normality’ was helped by them being able to participate in the ECB's vast Quantitative Easing operations since 2015, which have kept the rates at which they can borrow in the capital markets low and the debt manageable. This was not the case for Greece. The credit rating for Greek bonds has been improving in anticipation of the end of the bail-out . But, despite the lengthening of maturities, interest rate reductions and payment holidays Greece has managed to negotiate for part of its debt, the 180% debt to GDP is likely to remain a constraint on growth.

In addition, the requirement to continue to produce substantial primary surpluses for decades to come will mean that it will be difficult to see how Greece can escape further austerity and low growth. Growth has been picking up mainly as a result of improved tourism receipts and higher exports generally, but it will take decades at current rates for the lost output to be made up. Further debt relief measures will have to be negotiated at some point to consolidate the foundations for future growth and prosperity. What Greece also needs is considerably more investment and infrastructure funding from the EU, more help to tackle the migrant crisis, a lessening in bureaucracy and a lowering of the tax burden on businesses and individuals to encourage spending and investment. It also needs to produce a properly, evidence - based industrial strategy. A proper partnership needs to develop between the public and private sectors on the back of a well thought-out and evaluated industrial strategy to ensure that Greece can exploit its strengths - such as in agriculture, energy and high tech- as well as consolidate its geographical position as a major trading and tourist centre with attractive offerings for visitors throughout the year and not just in the summer months.

During the crisis many young professionals and academics left Greece to try and build their lives abroad. How could this ‘brain drain’ be reversed? How could the experience of young Greek academics abroad be used to benefit Greece?

Outfits like 'Reload Greece ' which, backed by Greek academics at the LBS and elsewhere are trying to encourage young Greek entrepreneurs through training grants and other inducements to engage in new activities and link up with the Greeks of the diaspora are beginning to make a difference. But this is still a relatively small endeavour compared with the challenge of engaging the large number of young and qualified individuals who have left. There needs to be an active policy of re-engaging young professionals, possibly with a system of preferential funding arrangements to encourage investments in innovative ideas, supported by some of the international institutions. But again, reducing bureaucracy and allowing new start ups to flourish without crippling tax burdens is a must. Greece rates particularly poorly globally in relation to the ease of starting and doing business. A way of getting that talent to return must be found urgently.

Eurozone leaders hailed Greece’s exit from the bailout programme as the end of the eurozone crisis. In an interview for the Handelsblatt newspaper, Olaf Scholz, Germany’s finance minister, noted that “The bleak predictions of the prophets of doom have not come true”, adding that “Greece’s salvation is also a sign of European solidarity.” Has Europe emerged stronger from the crisis? What are the lessons to be learnt from the crisis for both Greece and the EU?

It is true that the need to save the Euro as Mario Draghi, the head of the European Central Bank (ECB), had promised he would in 2015 also meant keeping Greece in the Euro and the EU. But the single currency had problems from the very beginning in that it had not built the proper institutions to deal with a crisis of the type we saw in the late 2000s. Greece suffered from that lack of institutional framework. When the crisis hit, countries found themselves in difficulty and unable to borrow in the capital markets and their banks teetering on the brink of insolvency with no proper funds transfer mechanism, no immediate risk sharing and the ECB not a lender of last resort which the markets had assumed (wrongly) that was the case . The burden was therefore borne by the taxpayer in each country which has left a legacy of debt burdens and a period of severe austerity, none of course as severe as in Greece. Greece like other crisis-hit eurozone countries was unable to lower its own interest rates or depreciate its currency as a way to improve competitiveness and its finances. Instead it was left with no option but to cut salaries and pensions, reduce public spending and increase taxes in exchange for a series of bail-outs. As a result the severity and duration of the Greek depression was unparalleled in any European country since the war. But fear of the domino effect of a possible 'Grexit' on the rest of the eurozone finally led to decisive action to deal with it in a more sustainable way. There has been an increasing acceptance of risk sharing. In addition to QE there is now a European Support Mechanism, a move to a banking union with a new bank resolution fund, a reinforced regulatory role for the European Central Bank, which is now also effectively finally a lender of last resort, a move towards a capital markets union and talk of a eurozone budget, eurozone finance Ministry and possibly turning the ESM into a European IMF. I think that indeed we could see the crisis in Greece and the eventual more positive response of the Europeans as demonstrating the commitment to keep the EU together.

econ.pryce collageThe UK is heading for an EU exit. In a recent event at LSE you spoke of a possible positive impact of Brexit on Greece. How is Brexit expected to affect the UK, Greece and the EU?

Much of what I said in response to the previous question also applies here. But Brexit has certainly had an impact. The EU has been at pains to ensure that advantages of being in the EU are clear during the Brexit negotiations. The example of the way Greece seems to have fared in the eurozone was and is still being used by pro-Brexit campaigners as a reason for not wanting to be in the EU. In a way I do think that the need to keep the EU against the threat that Brexit presents to the integrity of the EU has led to a greater show of solidarity towards Greece and a greater willingness by other eurozone countries to help broker a solution.

Having reached a deal with FYROM on the name issue, Greece has drawn praise abroad and aspires to play a leading role in the stabilisation and regional cooperation in the Balkans. What potential for economic growth does this deal offer to Greece and South Eastern Europe?

It’s good news that the name deal has gone forward. Assuming agreement by parliaments and a referendum, this opens the door to the Western Balkan nations to join the EU and its single market. Open frontiers from the Aegean to the Alps can only be good for Greek businesses who know how to do business in the region.

Turkey’s economy has recently shown signs of volatility, with the Turkish lira losing value and the country’s inflation and debt causing concern. What could the implications of a potential Turkish financial crisis be for the economies of Greece and the EU?

There are increasing concerns about any domino effect from the Turkish financial crisis. With a number of banks in the eurozone already having to cope with a high level of non-performing loans, the fall in the lira is adding to problems given the very large percentage of foreign currency denominated loans in Turkey. Moreover it could sour investors' views of highly indebted countries and therefore make it more difficult for Greece to borrow in international markets.



It’s not certain whether Dimitris Katsimiris’ films could be used to restore faith to humanity. His dark universe is inhabited by toxic brothers, ready to be the first to cast stones, ruthless YouTubers and individuals that stand alone with no help from family or society … But still, there are moments when the beaten and the outcasts dare to stand up and human dignity gains the upper hand.

Dimitris Katsimiris was born and raised in Rhodes. He has studied and worked as a social worker. He lives and works in Athens as a writer and director in theatre and cinema. He has written two plays and the screenplay for the short film “Live” (2018), and he has directed two award-winning short films. His first film “Birthday” (2016) is about Marios, a young man with cerebral palsy, waiting for his uncle, with his mother at home, to celebrate together his 22nd birthday. The arrival of his uncle, with his new girlfriend, will upset the family and create a suffocating atmosphere. “Mum, I’m back” (2017), his second short film, is about a woman returning, after 40 years, to the village where she was born for the funeral of her mother. There she’ll meet those she left behind. His latest film, “Fake News” (2018),is the story of a YouTuber and her partner planning to direct the raping of a girl by two black guys. Their goal is to get more subscribers on their YouTube channel. However, on the day of the shooting things don't go as planned. “Fake News” will premiere in the 41st Greek Short Film Festival in Drama (16-22 September 2018).

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Eva Koumarianou, "Mum, I'm back" (2017)

Dimitris Katsimiris talked to Greek News Agenda* about his films, stressing that his goal as a filmmaker is to look beyond the surface and spot the dark issues and hidden family dramas with respect and sensitivity. Katsimiris continues this exploration in “Fake News” of what is hidden in social media, underlining how easy it is to be manipulated. Influenced by Michael Hanneke and his theory that everyone can commit a crime if he faced a trigger situation, Katsimiris puts his protagonists in such situations, to take a walk on their dark side.  

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Ilias Valassis, Chrysothemis Amanatidi, "Birthday" (2016)

In your films you explore the dark parts of the human soul and human relations. In “Birthday” and “Mum, I’m back” family members don’t offer comfort and compassion. It’s quite the opposite. Would you like to elaborate?

Most family relationships are not as ideal as they look, there's often an unspoken truth that creates a false sense of reality. Every family has its personal drama, usually hidden very well. My goal as a filmmaker is to look behind the curtains and spot these dark issues with respect and sensitivity.


Lena Kitsopoulou, "Fake news" (2018)

Your recent film “Fake news” deals with a current sociopolitical issue. What do you think about contemporary Greek society and the influence of social media?

Social media have tremendous impact on our culture and to modern society in general. Their growing popularity has certain negative aspects on society. We see more and more people searching for role models through them, ignoring the fact that behind all these personas -such as youtubers, influencers etc- lurk lies, loneliness, isolation and depression. There is also a rise of a new phenomenon, ''fake news'. We have to be careful of what we are reading and sharing. Unfortunately, sometimes we let go of critical thinking and it’s very easy to be manipulated.

Was I asleep while the others were suffering? In your films you are dealing with social issues, such as homophobia, racism and social injustice. Has your background as a social worker influenced your work and vision as a filmmaker?

Of course we all know that violence primarily arises from fear. For instance, I’m afraid something might happen to me so I perpetrate violence against others. The xenophobia and transphobia around us, that’s a form of violence too. It always comes from fear and ignorance. We are afraid of the unknown and we therefore want to fend it off. If we can’t fend it off easily, we resort to more violent options. My experience as a social worker does help me a lot, especially in research and communication with others.


Tunji Sanusi, Nick Wahome, Yiannis Kotsifas, "Fake news" (2018)

By which filmmakers have you been influenced?

My role model is Michael Haneke. His point of view and his irony about human nature is very close to my cinematic view. He used to say that “there is no crime I could not imagine having committed myself. You only need to be in a trigger situation”. That means that we all have a dark side.

Of course a world without art would be much poorer. I don’t believe that a work of art changes society or an individual. But I do believe that the sum total helps make a more bearable world.

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Thomas Chavianidis, "Birthday" (2016)

How do you feel about contemporary Greek short film productions?

Last year, with my second film ‘Mum, I’m back’, I had the opportunity to travel to a few film festivals and had the chance to interact with filmmakers from different cultures and backgrounds. I could say that there is a huge interest in Greek cinema especially for short films. In the last decade, Greek short films have traveled a lot, won awards and got recognition from important film festivals. I definitely believe in a positive future for Greek cinema.

What are your future plans?

My short filmmaking journey has come to an end. I am in the process of writing my first feature length film and hopefully will soon start shooting. Recently, with some good friends and coworkers, we created Frau Films Production Company, which gives me the courage and hope to continue on our cinematic path.


* Interview by Florentia Kiortsi